Lots of comments that I'm not going to take time to read through. My parents didn't teach me sh*t about personal finance either, so everything I know was learned through experience or research and should be taken as "just some schmuck's opinion on the interwebs".
First off, start saving for retirement. Pay yourself first! 401K, IRA, whatever you choose or have access to. Structure a budget so that the first bit of money that comes out (before taxes, before bills, before debts) is for you. Then figure out how much you can spend towards debt. Invest in some sort of index fund and forget about it. You'll be glad you did in 25 years.
Save up a few months of expenses also in a savings account. There are multiple online savings accounts that are paying north of 2% interest. This could come in handy if you need it.
Take out the higher interest rate debt first. Usually this would be revolving credit facilities like credit cards. You should never carry a balance on your credit cards, but that doesn't mean you should have them. Having ready access to credit does good for your score, as does a history of on-time payments. Get a card that gives you cash back (with no annual fee) and use that for your expenses each month, then pay it off in one lump sum. Do this for a year and you'll see your credit score skyrocket.
Student Loans.. if they are gov't loans, you have flexibility to change the repayment terms if you need to which could be important in a financial pinch. If they are private.. pay those bitches off. Just my opinion.
If your goal is to dig yourself out of a hole, then don't go running up CC bills or getting new installment loans for cars, bikes, boats or whatever. Pay yourself first, put money away for expenses, pay your CC off each month, focus on higher interest or lowest flexibility debt first. Keep your eyes on the prize and don't do silly things with your money.